Transition movement

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TN Logo.jpg
InTransition.png
Formation2007
FoundersRob Hopkins, Peter Lipman, Ben Brangwyn
Founded atTotnes
TypeNGO
Legal statusCharity
Headquarters43 Fore Street
Location
  • Totnes, UK
Websitehttps://transitionnetwork.org/

Transition is “a movement of communities coming together to reimagine and rebuild our world”, to vision and innovate for a transition to a future within planetary resource boundaries, founded in community resilience and social justice.

Transition is a movement that has been growing since 2005. It is about communities stepping up to address the big challenges they face by starting local. By coming together, they are able to crowd-source solutions. They seek to nurture a caring culture, one focused on supporting each other, both as groups or as wider communities.

In practice, they are reclaiming the economy, sparking entrepreneurship, reimagining work, reskilling themselves and weaving webs of connection and support. It’s an approach that has spread now to over 50 countries, in thousands of groups: in towns, villages, cities, Universities, schools.

"If we wait for governments, it'll be too late; if we act as individuals, it'll be too little; but if we act as communities, it might just be enough, just in time."

Purpose of the Transition movement

The Transition movement is about communities stepping up to address the big challenges they face by starting local. By coming together, they are able to crowd-source solutions. They seek to nurture a caring culture, one focused on supporting each other, both as groups or as wider communities. In practice, they are reclaiming the economy, sparking entrepreneurship, reimagining work, reskilling themselves and weaving webs of connection and support.

The following principles:[1] guide Transition processes.

Head, Heart & Hands

Doing Transition successfully is about finding a balance between these:

  • The Head: we act on the basis of the best information and evidence available and apply our collective intelligence to find better ways of living.
  • The Heart: we work with compassion, valuing and paying attention to the emotional, psychological, relational and social aspects of the work we do.
  • The Hands: we turn our vision and ideas into a tangible reality, initiating practical projects and starting to build a new, healthy economy in the place we live.

Principles

Transition is an approach rooted in values and principles. These are described slightly differently in different parts of the movement, but broadly:

  • We respect resource limits and create resilience – The urgent need to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, greatly reduce our reliance on fossil fuels and make wise use of precious resources is at the forefront of everything we do.
  • We promote inclusivity and social justice – The most disadvantaged and powerless people in our societies are likely to be worst affected by rising fuel and food prices, resource shortages and extreme weather events. We want to increase the chances of all groups in society to live well, healthily and with sustainable livelihoods.
  • We adopt subsidiarity (self-organisation and decision making at the appropriate level) – The intention of the Transition model is not to centralise or control decision making, but rather to work with everyone so that it is practiced at the most appropriate, practical and empowering level
  • We pay attention to balance – In responding to urgent, global challenges, individuals and groups can end up feeling stressed, closed or driven rather than open, connected and creative. We create space for reflection, celebration and rest to balance the times when we’re busily getting things done. We explore different ways of working which engage our heads, hands and hearts and enable us to develop collaborative and trusting relationships.
  • We are part of an experimental, learning network – Transition is a real-life, real-time global social experiment. Being part of a network means we can create change more quickly and more effectively, drawing on each other’s experiences and insights. We want to acknowledge and learn from failure as well as success – if we’re going to be bold and find new ways of living and working, we won’t always get it right first time. We will be open about our processes and will actively seek and respond positively to feedback.
  • We freely share ideas and power – Transition is a grassroots movement, where ideas can be taken up rapidly, widely and effectively because each community takes ownership of the process themselves. Transition looks different in different places and we want to encourage rather than unhelpfully constrain that diversity.
  • We collaborate and look for synergies – The Transition approach is to work together as a community, unleashing our collective genius to have a greater impact together than we can as individuals. We will look for opportunities to build creative and powerful partnerships across and beyond the Transition movement and develop a collaborative culture, finding links between projects, creating open decision-making processes and designing events and activities that help people make connections.
  • We foster positive visioning and creativity – Our primary focus is not on being against things, but on developing and promoting positive possibilities. We believe in using creative ways to engage and involve people, encouraging them to imagine the future they want to inhabit. The generation of new stories is central to this visioning work, as is having fun and celebrating success.

Characteristics of the Transition movement

Bringing together many sources, including the Transition principles and essential ingredients, the Transition Network team in 2020/21 compiled the following list of characteristics of the Transition movement. We do not suggest that all these characteristics are equally present in every Transition Group and Transition Hub, but this is an attempt to describe the areas where the Transition movement collectively is seeking to have impact.

[Characteristics to be added once revised in May 2021]

History of the Transition movement

Main page: History of the Transition movement


Transition Network created the following short video summary of the history of the Transition movement in 2016.

Transition originated in 2004 as a study project by students on a two-year permaculture design course at Kinsale Further Education College in Ireland led by permaculture teacher Rob Hopkins [2]. Shortly afterwards Hopkins relocated to Totnes in southwest England, where along with Naresh Giangrande, Sophy Banks and others he founded Transition Town Totnes in September 2006. Inspired by their work, communities elsewhere began to take up the Transition model, first in South West England, later across the UK, and then in various other countries across the world[3]. Transition was initially framed as a structured local response to peak oil, climate change and, especially since the 2008 financial crisis and economic instability.

In 2007, Hopkins, Ben Brangwyn and Peter Lipman together founded Transition Network as a coordination and support body for the growing movement. Naresh Giangrande and Sophy Banks developed Transition Network’s programme of Transition training.

In many places, Transition built upon, and reinvigorated, pre-existing initiatives, networks and movements. Particularly in the UK, the close association between Transition's origins and permaculture meant that many of the earliest adopters were permaculture teachers. In many places, Transition and permaculture remain closely linked, both conceptually and in practice. In a 2013 survey by Reading University, 82% of responding initiatives included in their steering group someone who had undertaken permaculture training or had permaculture knowledge (compared to 71% in which at least one steering group member had attended a Transition training), with an average of two steering group members with some form of permaculture training and three with some form of Transition training. Other common precursors to Transition initiatives include Local Agenda 21 groups and the Relocalization Network in the USA .

As Transition initiatives began in other countries, many formed national Transition hubs to coordinate their work nationally. Transition Network increasingly shares coordination, governance and other roles with the national hubs network.[4] 25 regions and countries now have a Transition Hub to help organise and support the Initiatives in their territory, with more in development. In May 2017 the group of Transition Hubs shifted to become a self-assessed, self-determined international network, including Transition Network as a support organisation,  increasingly sharing coordination, governance and roles with the group of Transition Hubs.

From 2013, Transition Network and various representatives of Transition Hubs played key roles in the discussion and planning processes that led to the formation of ECOLISE, a pan-European network of community-led sustainability initiatives. When ECOLISE was formally constituted in 2014, its founder members included Transition Network and a number of national Transition hubs.

Ecology of Change

In 2020 Transition Network started an evaluation of the impact, relevance and potential of Transition. A central element of the evaluation was a survey (Transition Network 2020 survey), translated into 9 languages, which was completed by 377 people in 32 countries[5]. Transition Network started this evaluation exercise by compiling an Initial Analysis document[6] drawing on recent feedback from various parts of the movement (including a strategic evaluation conducted by Transition US, a Training for Transition survey and a 2019 survey of Transition groups in Britain).

The Initial Analysis document shared this analysis of an ecology of change:

A useful concept in which to consider the relevance of the Transition movement is that of an “Ecology of Change”. This is the concept that many different strategies, roles and activities are needed within the broad range of groups, organisations and activists who all want a global shift to a regenerative future. Just as a healthy forest ecosystem needs many different plants and animals with different strategies, so moving to a future that is both equitable and within ecological resource limits will need community-led initiatives, government leadership, protests and campaigns, education, healing and reparations, action by companies, participatory democracy and design of new more regenerative systems which operate within ecological parameters. No single piece of this change ecosystem holds all the answers and all of it will be needed.

Over the last few years, Transition Network (the support charity) has reviewed different frameworks and practices which support positive social change to happen. This is helping us consider how our work and that of the wider movement, can contribute toward a resilient, equitable and regenerative society. What are we best positioned to offer in the ecology of change?

The Transition movement has been successful at pioneering social innovations, which have been scaled out or integrated into existing approaches, or form the focus of ongoing experiments such as the Municipalities in Transition project. Social innovations have been strengthened by the connections and support shared at a transnational scale, via Transition Network and Transition Hubs. However, one challenge for the Transition movement – along with other grassroots movements – is to “engage more strategically (and collectively) to influence actual policy change” (Loorbach et al., 2020, p. 258)[7], through collaboration at both local (Valkering et al., 2017)[8] and transnational scales.

People quoted in a Transition US report in 2020 describe Transition’s place in this Ecology of Change in different ways. They highlighted some of the most valued attributes of the Transition approach as:

    • providing a focus on local/community based solutions that are practical and actionable and build resilience to the challenges we face;
    • providing hopeful, imaginative and fun approaches;
    • offering a sense of purpose and agency;
    • balancing the Head, Heart, and Hands in Transition;
    • the importance of attending to the inner dimensions of change.

We are the one activist group that… focuses on building things rather than protesting; and foregrounds the heart and the spiritual.

Using the concept of an ecology of change can help us identify other groups playing different roles within the wider change network, so we can ally with, uplift and amplify their work, rather than feeling we are responsible for all roles or stages of change making activity.

Some impacts of the Transition movement are ‘invisible’, yet the 2020 Transition movement survey responses demonstrate how Transition has contributed to the wider ecology of change through the dissemination of practices, concepts and collective wisdom from the Transition movement to others such as COVID Mutual Aid groups, Extinction Rebellion (XR), community land trusts, community energy groups, local food producers, Fridays for Future, and Deep Adaptation. For some respondents, this is what success looks like: the integration of Transition principles into wider movements and organisations[9].

Scope of the Transition movement

In 2008, nine months after the founding of Transition Network there were 100 Transition Initiatives.  At April 2021 there are 1,048 Transition initiatives from 56 countries registered directly with Transition Network .  There are known to be many Transition groups who are known to or registered with their Transition Hub rather than with Transition Network, so the total number of Transition groups is not known as an accurate number, but at least 1,200 groups worldwide is a conservative estimate. 

An independent survey conducted by researchers at Reading University in mid-2012 identified contact points for 1179 Transition initiatives, not all registered on the Transition Network website, in 23 countries.[10] Longitudinal data from several countries on the numbers of known initiatives showed this to have grown each year from 2007 to 2014, but that the rate of growth has declined each year.[11] In the UK, where the movement is longest-established, there is evidence that the number of local initiatives has plateaued and even declined, as groups, for various reasons, cease to be active.

At the start of 2021, there are 24 official Transition Hubs, in the following countries or regions:

Australia, Austria, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Croatia, Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Japan, London region, Luxembourg, Mexico, Paris region, Portugal, Scotland, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland (French-speaking), United States of America, Wallonia/Brussels.

Some other countries have emerging or developing Transition Hubs, or those which are not yet registered with the Transition Hubs group.  During 2021 a process of renewing each Hub’s self-assessment with the Transition Hubs group is taking place, so this list will be updated.

Membership

Precise data on the numbers, locations and impacts of Transition initiatives are not available due to the rapid growth of the movement, the lack of clear boundaries concerning what constitutes a Transition Initiative and who is involved, inconsistency in the extent to which local initiatives connect with coordinating organisations such as Transition Network and national hubs, and the patchy distribution of formal research effort.

Levels of Organisation

The Transition Network website identifies four key organisational levels in the Transition movement:[12]

People Individuals all over the world who feel a desire to get together with their neighbours and see what they can do to make their communities happier, healthier, more resilient and more gentle on the earth. Those of us who have caught the Transition ‘bug’ are sometimes referred to as “Transitioners”.

Transition initiatives The basic building blocks of our movement are groups of people who are making positive change happen locally – in their village, town or city neighbourhood or sometimes in their school, workplace, college or university. They can access support and connect up with others across the movement, but they’re not waiting for permission to act and nobody gives them instructions.

Transition hubs Often groups of people get together to catalyse and support Transition across a particular territory. They may operate at a regional level, connecting and sharing learning across a number of communities or at a national or even transnational scale. We do not assume that the territory of a hub will always follow national or administrative boundaries – it’s up to everyone involved to agree what area they will cover taking into account, culture, geography, language, government structures etc. A few hubs have paid workers or are hosted by a professional organisation, but many are entirely staffed by volunteers.

Hubs that operate at the highest level of scale in their territory (usually National Hubs) come together to form the Transition International Hubs Group. This group is experimenting with innovative, low carbon ways of connecting, collaborating, making decisions, sharing learning and supporting each other even though the circle is spread out across the globe.

Transition Network Transition Network was created as a UK charity in the early days of the Transition movement, when it became clear that there was a need and an appetite for people to inspire, encourage, connect, support and train communities as they self-organised around the Transition model. The charity is growing and evolving alongside the movement. These days, a significant proportion of Transition Network’s funding is focused on the charity’s international work, its staff (all of whom are part-time) are spread across and beyond the UK and we are exploring ways to distribute power, resources and responsibilities more widely across the movement.

Diffusion and Growth of the Transition Movement

The first academic survey of the Transition Movement reported that in February 2009 there were 94 initiatives in the UK and around 40 elsewhere, principally in the USA, Australia and New Zealand.[13] Data provided directly by Transition Network showed that as of July 2009 there were 186 formally registered initiatives (up from 106 in October 2008), plus over 800 'mullers' (nascent Transition initiatives that had not yet been granted 'official' status by Transition Network, a process that is now defunct). The majority of initiatives in both categories were in the UK and Ireland, with significant numbers in other 'developed' Anglophone countries (USA, Australia and New Zealand), with smaller numbers in Canada, continental Europe, Asia, Latin America and South Africa (the only African country represented at the time).[14] An independent survey conducted in mid-2012 identified contact points for 1179 Transition initiatives, not all registered on the Transition Network website, in 23 countries.[15]

Growth of the Transition movement has been uneven in both space and time. Perhaps unsurprisingly given its origins in Ireland and England and the preponderance of English-language literature and learning materials, initial growth was most marked in these two countries, followed by other parts of the anglophone world. Data from early 2009 showed there to be 94 registered Transition initiatives in the UK and Ireland, 40 in other countries, mostly in the USA, Australia and New Zealand.[13] Establishment of national hubs in non-anglophone countries capable of bridging linguistic divides, the establishment of an international and multilingual network of trainers qualified to deliver Transition training and translation of key documents, including The Transition Handbook, into other languages, have all helped international diffusion.

Patterns of diffusion are also non-uniform within countries or regions, and locally. A global survey conducted in 2012 concluded that less than half of responding Transition initiatives are representative of diversity within their community.[15] Geographical distributions of local Transition initiatives in UK (England/Wales), Germany, Italy and France, which collectively comprised 48% of known Transition iniatives worldwide in 2012, show a marked clustering, with clear hotspots and 'cold spots' in each country.[16] In England, this clustering effect became the basis of efforts on the part of Transition Network to support creation of regional hubs.[17]

Patterns of diffusion of Transition differ from country to country. Comparative and country case study research suggest that common diffusion mechanisms and processes can be identified in different places. However, outcomes of these processes are all highly sensitive to differences of context, so the patterns of diffusion produced vary from country to country, and from place to place, according to specific details. A detailed examination of the spread of Transition in the USA shows it to depend on all three major channels of diffusion identified in the social movements literature: relational (based on personal contact and relationship-building among teachers, seekers and brokers of knowledge within and across localities), non-relational (based on written and other media and learning materials that allow inspiration and guidance in the absence of personal contact) and mediated (based on specific forms of instruction, support and guidance such as Transition Training and the various books and other how-to media created by Transition Network).[18]

Detailed studies from Britain and Italy confirm this finding, and show that country-specific geographical patterns of diffusion recur across social movement: diffusion of Transition in Italy for example, shows a similar pattern to that of Solidarity Purchasing Groups in that country, different from that of Transition in Britain.[19]

Aggregated data from UK, France, Italy and Germany show a steady decline in the annual rate of growth (i.e. establishment of new local initiatives), from nearly 180 per cent in 2007 to around ten per cent in 2014[16]. Recent consolidation of data on UK initiatives held by Transition Network suggested their number to have declined from around 430 that at some point registered with Transition Network to 260 that still operated an active contact point by late 2017. Some theorists have suggested this to reflect the Adaptive cycle pattern of change in complex systems documented in resilience theory, which includes regular phases of decline followed by reorganisation and renewal.[20] Disappearance or decline of Transition initiatives can reflect different trajectories. The 2012 survey by Reading University showed a marked and predictable tendency for inactive initiatives to report lower levels of success than active initiatives.[15] However, many Transition initiatives operate within an ecology of local grassroots action that mostly takes place outside the initiative itself.[21]

Initiatives in numbers

Transition Network maintains a global register of initiatives on its website, which in early 2021 had 1044 entries [22].

Numbers of Transition Initiatives
Date Number of Initiatives Number of Countries Source
Oct 2008 106 'official' Data provided by Transition Network, reported in [14]
Feb 2009 94 in UK and Ireland, 40 elsewhere Data provided by Transition Network, reported in [13]
July 2009 186 'official' (plus 800+ 'mullers') Data provided by Transition Network, reported in [14]
mid-2012 1179 with traceable contact point 23 Data scouring by researchers at Reading University[15]
Sept 2013 1130 43 Transition Network website, reported in [23]

By 2021, there were also 24 Transition hubs, which is important because, as it says on their website, "the total number of TIs on our website doesn’t reflect the many more TIs registered via Hub websites which aren’t necessarily registered on the Transition Network website (e.g. Transition Japan = 56 TIs / TN website = 5 TIs).[22]

This means that the list almost certainly includes fewer than the total number of initiatives, as many do not register. The Transition Network website lists national hubs in 24 countries: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Croatia, Denmark, England, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, London & South East, Luxembourg, Mexico, Paris, Portugal, Switzerland, Scotland, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, the U.S.[24].

Transition movement by Countries

The table below leads to information about the development of Transition movement in European countries:

Albania Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus
Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus
Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France
Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland
Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Latvia Liechtenstein
Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Montenegro
Netherlands North Macedonia Norway Poland Portugal
Romania Russia Serbia Slovakia Slovenia
Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine UK

Locations

Links to key examples

Numbers of people involved, and indirect beneficiaries

Impacts of Transition movement

Ecological impacts

Ecological impacts include a range of impacts of Transition activities.  The Transition Network 2020 survey included the following categories:

  • Reducing carbon emissions
  • Increasing resilience to climate change impacts,
  • Local food,
  • Renewable Energy,
  • Green Transport,
  • Waste or pollution reduction,
  • Improving biodiversity and protecting wildlife,
  • Offering nature connection activities
  • Sharing ecological principles and practices
  • Using ecological design frameworks
Ecological Impacts of the Transition movement, from the Transition Network 2020 survey


Energy impacts of the Transition movement

Energy-related impacts of Transition activities include carbon reduction, and developing and promoting renewable energy, including developing renewable energy projects at different scales. Some Transition groups are the initiators of energy reduction and renewable energy projects. Many groups participate in coalitions focused on zero-carbon, net-zero or climate neutrality [link to climate change page], or act as trusted messengers to stimulate or increase the uptake of renewable energy/energy efficiency schemes run by broader organisations. Transition’s focus on peak oil has lessened over time.

[click title to see more energy impacts]

Climate change impacts of the Transition movement

Climate change mitigation and increasing resilience to climate change impacts is an important focus for the work of Transition groups. Given the recent increase in awareness about the climate and ecological emergency, and the number of groups responding, people have questioned whether Transition is currently less relevant. To quote a respondent to the 2019 survey of British Transition groups: “I think that the Transition Town offer is exactly what’s needed. But I suspect other people think “Oh well, that transition town stuff didn’t work… let’s try Extinction Rebellion!

However, most groups have seen that broader frameworks are needed, that protest is needed as much and alongside longer-term community-led or wider society initiatives, and not every group needs to do the whole spectrum of action.

Food and agriculture impacts of the Transition movement

Food and agriculture projects demonstrate a variety of ways that Transition groups are engaging their wider community. 79% of the 2020 survey respondents reporting that they had some or meaningful or significant impact with these activities.

By celebrating local and cultural aspects of food, projects can broaden and diversify engagement, and can foster community cohesiveness through practical activities that enable people to work together. Regenerative agriculture projects demonstrate social innovation, and community gardens have provided accessible nature connection and green spaces during COVID lockdowns. Transition groups have provided practical action in response to COVID. This has included  enabling the collection and delivery of food from local businesses; promoting local food and markets; edible gardens; produce and seed swaps; and providing practical solidarity and mutual aid approaches such as community fridges and larders.

Water impacts of the Transition movement

Water flows through broader issues that Transition groups focus on, such as food and agriculture; biodiversity, flooding and the ownership of water. 44% of 2020 survey respondents indicated that they had achieved some or meaningful or significant impact in ‘Protecting and restoring land or water’. These approaches include resilience and flooding, and protecting or restoring water resources.

Waste impacts of the Transition movement

Waste and pollution reduction provides a variety of opportunities for Transition groups to deliver practical impacts and engage with the wider community in their locality. Just over 60% of respondents to the 2020 survey reported that they had achieved some or meaningful or significant impacts on waste or pollution reduction.

These include activities such as Repair Cafes, Give and Take events, working towards Zero waste, and community composting.

Biodiversity impacts of the Transition movement

Transition groups’ work on biodiversity has included micro-forests, planting wildlife friendly orchards and flowers and towns, reforestation and saving native seeds. It has also involved awareness and campaigning on pesticide usage. 44% of respondents to the Transition survey reported they had achieved some or meaningful or significant impacts in Improving biodiversity and protecting wildlife


Social and cultural impacts

In the Transition Network 2020 Survey, the social and cultural impacts of the Transition movement included the following categories:

  • Raising awareness of intersecting crises (ecological, social, economic)     
  • Creating/sharing regenerative narratives & visions      
  • Social cohesion and community spirit
  • Developing mutual aid/care systems  
  • Collaborative decision making
  • Participatory democracy (e.g. citizens assemblies)       
  • Influencing political debates or processes
  • Building networks and coalitions
  • Addressing social injustice
  • Developing anti-racism strategies and practices
  • Supporting emotional health and wellbeing    
  • Supporting shifts in attitudes and mindsets

The figure below gives an overview of the reported impacts from the respondents to the survey.

Social and cultural impacts of Transition groups, from the Transition Network 2020 survey.

Many of the social and cultural impacts of Transition are woven into approaches and activities taken by Transition groups. The links below give further examples of social and cultural impacts of the Transition movement.

Narratives and vision impacts of the Transition movement

Social cohesion and mutual aid impacts of the Transition movement

Governance impacts of the Transition movement

Inner Transition impacts of the Transition movement

Inner Transition has been a core part of Transition movement since its inception. Respondents to the Transition 2020 survey reported some or meaningful or significant impact in Supporting emotional health and wellbeing (50%) and Supporting shifts in attitudes and mindsets (63%).

Learning impacts of the Transition movement

Learning in the Transition movement is multi-dimensional. Many groups devote attention to raising awareness of intersecting crises (ecological, social, economic), and sharing ecological principles and practices.

Municipal action, coalition building and working with local government

Taking forms of municipal action, such as building coalitions with organisations and local government to scale up Transition is an important impact of some Transition groups, and linked to their success. See coalition building impacts of the Transition movement

Political impacts of the Transition movement

The Transition 2020 survey illustrated that some groups continued to influence local politics. 44% of survey respondents reported some or meaningful/significant impacts in this area of 'Influencing political debates or processes'. See Political impacts of the Transition movement.

Social justice and the Transition movement

There are many examples of how Transition groups and hubs are addressing injustice across the movement. These include practical mutual aid and solidarity, alongside anti-racism awareness raising and incorporating anti-racism practices into groups that enable participants to engage and talk about the subjects, rather than avoid them. See Social justice and the Transition movement.

Economic impacts

A characteristic of the Transition movement is to "Contribute to a wellbeing economy –  innovate and collaborate to create economic models and opportunities focused on wellbeing and inclusion e.g. new social enterprises, currencies, livelihoods". In the Transition Survey 2020, the economic impacts of the Transition movement included the following categories:

  • Sharing 'care or wellbeing economies' principles and practices
  • Developing social enterprises or cooperatives
  • Creating green jobs
  • Developing a local currency      
  • Supporting local businesses    
  • Divesting from the growth economy (e.g. attention to supply chains, big banks, fossil fuels etc)

Compared to the ecological and social and cultural impacts, less respondents reported they had achieved some, or meaningful/significant impact across the economic impact categories. You can see many examples of economic impacts on the Economic impacts of the Transition movement page.

Figure: Economic Impacts of the Transition movement, from the Transition 2020 survey

Economic impacts.png

Impacts in other dimensions

Right from the start, the pioneers of the Transition movement recognised that efforts towards the outer change in the physical world need to be accompanied by inner work. Hillary Prentice and Sophy Banks coined the term Inner Transition in 2007 and this has been a key component of Transition ever since.

Relationships with other Movements and Initiatives

In many places, Transition built upon, and reinvigorated, pre-existing initiatives, networks and movements. In the 2009 survey of 74 Transition groups in the UK, 19.2% of responding initiatives reported that one or more pre-existing group were involved in their establishment[25]. Half of the 276 Transition initiatives worldwide responding to a 2012 survey reported that they had been founded on the basis of a pre-existing group.[15] Particularly in the UK, the close association between Transition's origins and permaculture meant that many of the earliest adopters were permaculture teachers. In many places, Transition and permaculture remain closely linked, both conceptually and in practice [26].

In the 2013 survey by Reading University, 82% of responding initiatives included in their steering group someone who had undertaken permaculture training or had permaculture knowledge (compared to 71% in which at least one steering group member had attended a Transition training), with an average of two steering group members with some form of permaculture training and three with some form of Transition training.[15] Other common precursors to Transition initiatives include Local Agenda 21 groups[27] and the Relocalization Network in the USA [28].

Research on the Transition movement

Bibliography

References

  1. Transition principles, Accessed 22 February 2021.
  2. Hopkins, R., 2005. “Kinsale 2021” An Energy Descent Action Plan – Version.1. 2005. Kinsale Further Education College.
  3. Bailey, I., Hopkins, R., Wilson, G., 2010. Some things old, some things new: The spatial representations and politics of change of the peak oil relocalisation movement. Geoforum 41, 595–605. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2009.08.007
  4. Longhurst, N. and Pataki, G. (2015) Case study report: the Transition Movement. TRANSIT: EU SSH.2013.3.2.-1 Grant agreement no: 613169. P. 7
  5. https://transitionnetwork.org/news-and-blog/what-you-told-us/
  6. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1cZzNTKtts-GGAt6N6ou67wSCuh1wVSZF/view
  7. Loorbach, D., Wittmayer, J., Avelino, F., von Wirth, T. and Frantzeskaki, N., 2020. Transformative innovation and translocal diffusion. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 35, p. 251-260. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eist.2020.01.009 Loorbach et al., “Transformative Innovation and Translocal Diffusion.”
  8. Valkering, P.; Yücel, G.; Gebetsroither-Geringer, E.; Markvica, K.; Meynaerts, E.; Frantzeskaki, N. Accelerating Transition Dynamics in City Regions: A Qualitative Modeling Perspective. Sustainability 2017, 9, 1254.https://doi.org/10.3390/su9071254
  9. https://transitionnetwork.org/news-and-blog/voices-and-stories-from-across-our-movement/
  10. Feola, G., Nunes, R., 2013. Success and failure of grassroots innovations for addressing climate change: The case of the Transition Movement. Global Environmental Change 24, 232–250. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.11.011. P. 238.
  11. Feola, G., Him, M.R., 2016. The diffusion of the Transition Network in four European countries. Environment and Planning A 48, 2112–2115. https://doi.org/10.1177/0308518x16630989
  12. https://transitionnetwork.org/about-the-movement/who-is-involved/. Accessed October 22nd 2018.
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 Seyfang, G., 2009. Green Shoots of Sustainability: the 2009 Transition Movement Survey. University of East Anglia.
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Bailey, I., Hopkins, R., Wilson, G., 2010. Some things old, some things new: The spatial representations and politics of change of the peak oil relocalisation movement. Geoforum 41, 595–605. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2009.08.007
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 Feola, G., Nunes, R., 2014. Success and failure of grassroots innovations for addressing climate change: The case of the Transition Movement. Global Environmental Change 24, 232–250. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.11.011. P. 238.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Feola, G., Him, M.R., 2016. The diffusion of the Transition Network in four European countries. Environment and Planning A 48, 2112–2115. https://doi.org/10.1177/0308518x16630989
  17. Hubs workshop report
  18. Shawki, N., 2013. Understanding the Transnational Diffusion of Social Movements. Humanity & Society 37, 131–158. https://doi.org/10.1177/0160597613481799
  19. Feola, G., Butt, A., 2015. The diffusion of grassroots innovations for sustainability in Italy and Great Britain: an exploratory spatial data analysis. The Geographical Journal 183, 16–33. https://doi.org/10.1111/geoj.12153
  20. Henfrey, T. & N. Giangrande, 2017. Resilience and Community Action in the Transition Movement. In Henfrey. T., G. Maschkowski & G. Penha-Lopes (eds.) Resilience, Community Action and Societal Transformation.. East Meon: Permanent Publications. Pp. 87-110.
  21. e.g. see Henfrey, T., 2017. Resilience and Community Action in Bristol. In Henfrey. T., G. Maschkowski & G. Penha-Lopes (eds.) Resilience, Community Action and Societal Transformation.. East Meon: Permanent Publications. Pp. 47-56.
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