Project:Referencing guidelines

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This page, targeted at content editors, explains and describes the use of references in the CfF wiki.


Referencing of sources is important for the CfF wiki, which aims to provide reliably, robustly-evidenced information on community-led initiatives in Europe. This also supports the related aim of making the different literatures and other sources of information more visible, accessible, and closely connected. In this, the CfF wiki is closely linked with the Communities for Future document library, which gathers all sources cited on the wiki along with other information about or related to community-led initiatives.

Importance of Referencing

In order to ensure the reliability and verifiability of information on the CfF wiki, we strongly discourage including any factual claim that can not be backed up by an attributable source. Most pages will be based on secondary information compiled from other sources, which should always be cited. In any cases where the CfF wiki reports on primary findings (data or analysis not released elsewhere), these should be described in full, along with the methods used to reach them.

The CfF wiki draws on a broad range of sources, including academic publications, grey literature such as project reports, internal documents and websites of community initiatives and networks, and others. The purpose of referencing is not to privilege any particular source over another, but to recognise the value of diverse types of document, and to ensure readers can identify and assess for themselves the sources of any information they find here, their relaibility, and the credibility of any conclusions drawn.

Referencing Formats

The CfF wiki uses wiki code for creating references and footnotes.

If you enclose the full reference between the following pair of tags <ref> TEXT</ref> the page will automatically generate a footnote. Footnote text is automatically displayed at the bottom of the page, in numerical sequence (the order in which they appear in the document). More background on these tags, including customisation options can be found here. The site convention is to include a single space directly after the first <ref> tag, in order to give the list of references a less cluttered appearance.

Conventionally, pages on the CfF locate the references section at the end of the document (just before the category tags), marked with a Level 2 Heading followed by the optional <references/> tag following it.

For consistency, the preferred reference format is that of the American Sociological Association. References that refer to a whole sentence, or an entire clause within a sentence, are usually located after the full stop or other punctuation mark that closes it. If the reference only covers part of the sentence or clause, it should be placed before the punctuation mark.

All references cited in the CfF wiki will ideally also be included in the CfF Zotero library. If you do not have access, please contact the site curators, or the content curators for the pages you are working on, in order to liaise.

The preferable way to add references to your text is by following the following steps:

  1. Add the resource to CfF Zotero library.
  2. Fill in the missing information about the item that isn't automatically retrieved (names of authors, year of publication, language etc.). For detailed information consult with CfF Zotero User Guide.
  3. Once you've entered all the information you could find, right click on the item and select "Export Item". Then in "Format" select "Wikipedia Citation Templates". Save the file to your computer and open it with text editor. In the file, you'll find the code: {{Cite book| publisher = John Hunt Publishing| isbn = 978-1-78904-186-6| last1 = Burkhart| first1 = Corinna| last2 = Schmelzer| first2 = Matthias| last3 = Treu| first3 = Nina| title = Degrowth in movement(s): exploring pathways for transformation| date = 2020}}
  4. Copy/paste this text into your article at the point where you want to add a reference.
  5. Add reference code: <ref>{{Cite book| publisher = John Hunt Publishing| isbn = 978-1-78904-186-6| last1 = Burkhart| first1 = Corinna| last2 = Schmelzer| first2 = Matthias| last3 = Treu| first3 = Nina| title = Degrowth in movement(s): exploring pathways for transformation| date = 2020}}</ref>.

This will result in extensive reference with all the available information about the item listed at the bottom of the article.

The alternative is to enter the parameters manually using Cite Web or other Cite templates: {{Cite book| publisher = | isbn = | last1 = | first1 = | | title = | date = }}

For plain references and links, for example to webpages, you can use simply <ref>[ The title of the link.]</ref>

References and Bibliography

Some pages might also include a bibliography, of material relevant to the content but not directly cited in the text. This can be a useful way to start a new page, or map out additions to a page based on new sources - creating a bibliography based on a list of sources that might be cited and become references as the text develops.

From Zotero, you can retrieve bibliography by right-clicking the item, selecting "Create Bibliography from item", select "American Sociological Association", and "Copy to clipboard". Click "OK" and you can then paste the bibliography in your article. This is an example of what you will get:

Adalilar, S.N., Alkibay, S., Eser, Z., 2015. Ecovillages as a Destination and a Study of Consumer Approaches to Ecovillages. Procedia Economics and Finance 23, 539–546.