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Community power is key to a decarbonised economy and a crucial step in tackling climate change. This is about more than windmills and solar panels. Community energy can help find a new balance between local economies and the global economy. It can help overcome the urban and rural divide, and close the gap between north and south, between rich and poor — because it empowers local people. Community energy leads to energy democracy, holding the promise of an economy and society based on co-operation rather than competition, within the boundaries of planet earth.[1] Communities of energy also aim to reach other objectives such as profit for the citizen, local energy, democracy, community sustainable development, energy efficiency, fair energy prices, climate and sustainable development goals and alleviate energy poverty.[2]



Origins and history

Main concepts

Practical application in communities

Community energy initiatives are organised in many different formal and informal ways.

Collective Action Initiatives for Energy Transition

  • Community-led Initiatives
  • Cooperatives
  • Energy communities
  • Permaculture
  • Transition Initiatives
  • Ecovillages
  • Municipalities and local administration

Decentralized Energy Transition

Energy communities across Europe

In the majority of European countries, community energy initiatives are growing and developing rapidly.

Energy transition in Spain

Energy transition in Poland

Energy transition in The Netherlands

Energy transition in Estonia

Energy transition in Italy

Energy transition in Belgium

Albania Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus
Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus
Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France
Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland
Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Latvia Liechtenstein
Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Montenegro
Netherlands North Macedonia Norway Poland Portugal
Romania Russia Serbia Slovakia Slovenia
Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine UK

Links to key examples

Energy impacts of the Transition movement



Research on Energy and community-led initiatives

A study that reviews literature in three countries.[3]


External links


  1. Walsh, Molly; Castanié, Myriam; Giovannini, Sara (2020). Community Energy: A practical guide to reclaiming power. Friends of the Earth Europe. p. 156. Retrieved 2020-11-02.
  2. COMETS project Deliverable D3.3 Report: determinants for CAIs in Energy Transition and comparative case studies
  3. Brummer, Vasco (2018-10-01). "Community energy – benefits and barriers: A comparative literature review of Community Energy in the UK, Germany and the USA, the benefits it provides for society and the barriers it faces". Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 94: 187–196. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2018.06.013. ISSN 1364-0321. Retrieved 2019-02-15.