Commons are collectively owned resources, collaboratively managed by their co-users under formal or informal governance systems. Their management institutions are finely attuned to the specifics of place and closely link ecological and social reality. For this reason, traditional commons are a crucial ingredient in all documented cases where human groups self-organise to achieve sustainability and/or resilience. Creation of new commons has been mooted as a central strategy in climate mitigation and adaptation. Permaculture is one of many social movements dedicated to the creation of new commons, and along with these novel institutional mechanisms for climate adaptation that transcend the limitations of state and market.